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The Accessibility Supply Chain – Tech Forum 2019

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– [Noah] So, I'd like to introduce the two speakers who will be presenting for the session So, Shannon Culver

Shannon Culver is the manager of technology at eBOUND Canada eBOUND is a nonprofit organization that enables Canadian independent publishers to participate in the digital economy She also teaches the digital publishing production course and the publishing certificate program at the Chang School of Continuing Education Prior to her work at eBOUND, Shannon was manager of publisher operations at Kobo Sabina is the public services librarian at the National Network for Equitable Library Services, commonly referred to as NNELS, a national digital library of accessible format material that works with public libraries and publishers across Canada to ensure equal access to reading materials for all Canadians

– [Sabina] We're going to summarize an event that we had at the end of January that we called the Accessible Publishing Summit We hosted this summit because we wanted some clarity on the workflow that publishers should adopt to create accessible ebooks, and we ended up with anything but clarity, but a whole lot of good work coming out of it, I think So, first, a little bit about us – [Shannon] So, as Noah mentioned, I'm the manager of technology at eBOUND Canada And so eBOUND works with about 75 independent Canadian publishers to help them manage their digital file creation, distribution and sale

We work with publishers right across the country eBOUND was initially started as a project of the Association of Canadian Publishers, started when ebooks first sort of came on the scene and they realized that it was going to be a lot of work for independent Canadian publishers, some of whom only have a few staff members, to adapt to this entirely new format and to all of the technology involved in creating and selling ebooks And so they started the I always get the acronym wrong, but I'll look at Kate, it's the Canadian Digital Service Project? – [Kate] Close enough It's ancient history now – Yeah And then a few years later, they realized that this support system that they put in place was really helpful and that it should probably continue, and so eBOUND was rolled out into a separate organization although we still work very closely with the ACP in terms of our mission and our work, and then we also share an office with them So, we're physically very close to them as well

– Cool And NNELS is a digital public library of books in accessible format So we're funded by eight provinces and territories to produce books for people by request We also purchase and acquire materials So we're hosted by the BC Libraries Co-op

So I've put the logo up there too because they're basically our home So what we're building is a digital collection of ebooks and audiobooks that we purchase and produce, and they're all available to any Canadian with a print disability through their local public library So the thing that's cool about NNELS is that all of the books are hosted on a server that's owned by the BC Libraries Co-op which is a cooperative of Canadian public libraries So instead of books being in OverDrive where a third party hosts them, sells them, our books are held by public libraries in perpetuity So in case you're worried about that, access is strictly controlled through Canadian public libraries

It's only for people who have a print disability A perceptual disability is defined in the Copyright Act as a vision impairment or blindness, mobility impairment that prevents someone from being able to hold or read a book, or someone with a comprehension impairment such as dyslexia, certain kinds of autism, stroke, brain injury, all kinds of things So what we know is that it's not a huge portion of the Canadian population that reads these books even though many people may qualify for access So one of our challenges is to improve literacy, and bring more books, and make more books available to people who might not otherwise have access to them One of the questions we get is, why is an alternate format producer in public libraries dealing, tackling

dealing with accessible publishing? A couple of months into her position, our content coordinator, Farrah Little, a few years agoso NNELS is only five years old So a couple years ago, NNELS or Farrah started looking at a new DAISY standard

So one of the formats we produce is DAISY, which is a we described it to libraries as, "You know when you have a CD audiobook and it takes 20 CDs? A DAISY fits on a single disc," and their eyes light up because people don't have to change the discs There are other things that are important about DAISY, such as functionality, and searching, and things like navigation, but that's sort of the core

It makes book accessible and easy to use So, Farrah was looking at the new specification or the requirements for DAISY 4 So right now we're at DAISY 3 And she realized that it's actually EPUB So, like, these standards have been merging

So, at the same time, we produce books for people So, we take an ebook, we convert it to Word, often, and then we convert it back to EPUB for people So it's like a little bit of a crazy system So if we could circumvent that system, and instead work with publishers to make their books more accessible, then we wouldn't have to do that crazy work of converting EPUBs to Word documents, editing them, and turning them back into EPUB Right? Nod

Nod So these are just some of the books that we've produced So this is Misfit by Andreas Souvaliotis, Miracle at the Forks by Peter C Newman These are books that people request and then we produce on request

This is An Army of Problem Solvers by Shaun Loney, Utopia for Realists by Rutger Bregman, and The Princess and the Pony by Kate Beaton So we get a whole range of stuff So at the same time that we're producing these books, we are also noticing from our readers that accessing ebooks through their libraries is difficult So the apps aren't working with their assistive technology and they can't actually read the ebooks that are available in places like OverDrive or 3M So we received some federal funding, which was awesome

So usually we're provincially funded And we did a few things We started testing these library apps to create a report So two of our accessibilityno, three of our accessibility testers are here today In the back, we have Caroline Bordeaux and Daniella Levy-Pinto And Steve Murgaski is also looking cool and in shades in the corner back there So these folks have been testing these library reading apps because our goal is to make public library service accessible, and the way we can do that is for everyone to be able to borrow books that are in public libraries

The other thing they've been doing is looking at EPUBs for Canadian publishers So publishers have sent us EPUBs and we're writing up reports on how accessible they are They have learned so much about what makes a book accessible and inaccessible We're also hosting a bunch of EPUB accessibility workshops and we also have the great privilege of working with people like Laura Brady through this work So, the final thing we did

Well, another I'm not listing everything, lucky for you We hosted Accessible Publishing Summit on January 28th and 29th here in Toronto The weather was good No

There was a blizzard It was crazy And the point of this workshop or the summit was to answer the question, "Who does what in their publishing workflow to create accessible EPUB?" and we thought that we could break it out by the publisher, the editor, the author, the alternate format producer, the distributor?" We thought, "Okay, we'll get some clarity" So that's, again, not what happened, but we'll tell you a bit about what did happen So, first of all, who we invited

We invited publishers, people who work with publishers, editors, EPUB veterans, government representatives, alternate format producers, public librarians, and I realized we left off readers who use accessible formats, people with print disabilities We've got a full list on our website, if anyone's curious, accessiblepublishingca So the first thing we did in that morning was we had a series of demos from our accessibility testers Daniella introduced the work that they were doing, and then we had some demos

So people were showing how they use our assistive technology to look at an ebook, and what works and what doesn't work, and what the experience is like when the book is not great So this is Steve Murgaski showing off his phone and his refreshable Braille display Not showing off, demonstrating This is Daniella Levy-Pinto here, and this is Kaden Faris, one of our testers who's not here today, along with a whole bunch of Tim Hortons coffee cups All right

– So one of the first things that we sort of set out to do as a group when we got together for the summit was to define what accessibility means to us And when I say us, the group that I'm referring to is a very diverse group of stakeholders So there were users, there were publishers, there were librarians And so it was really interesting to see sort of all of that come together So these are some of the words that we came up with during the summit

So things like having different options for how you access a text, the text being discoverable Books and accessible formats should be available at the same time as they are in print because that is often not the case right now It takes a while for an accessible format title to be created And it might take a library patron making a request to an organization like NNELS or CNIB or CELA That was a lot of acronyms

I can say the Canadian National Institute for the Blind or the Center for Equitable Library Access So right now we're really operating on a reactive model in a lot of ways to getting a request from a patron, and then that is when the format is being made We really talked a lot about devices, and reading apps should be simple, they should be easy to use, you should be able to access the book on whatever device and platform you want And then we also talked about the sort of intersectional elements of what are the other barriers that people are facing in addition to or in compliment to having a perceptual disability? Is it a library patron who lives somewhere where they have easy access to the internet? That's really important And I know Sabina has said that a lot of the library patrons in Alberta that you deal with do not have easy access to

– It's more BC, but yeah – BC, to high-speed internet And so how do those intersectional factors play into people's ability to access texts? So we talked about some of the challenges that, from the perspective of users of these texts, what are the things that you often see in the books that you're trying to access? So things like lack of headings, and page breaks, and any sort of navigational markers in the text

A lot of digital publications do not have page numbers, which makes it really difficult for students or people whose work relies a lot on reference If you can't cite a page number or you can't keep up in your university class as Kai, one of the testers, was telling us yesterday because you don't When the professor says flip to page 33 and you've got a digital version, if you can't flip to page 33, you're not able to keep up with the course

Images is another big one I think Romain from DAISY was talking on Monday at Ebookcraft about some of the issues that we still are facing with things like accessibility checkers is, if you put it in an alternateor a caption, or an alt text for your cover image, but it just says, "Cover," that's not really helpful to someone who can't see the cover

If there are inter-touchable details in that cover that are going to relate to the story, you should really be including that information, so that the person who's reading the text is going into it with the same information or set of references that a sighted person would have We talked a lot about the EPUB 2 and the fact that a lot of publishers are still producing the EPUB 2, and it does not include all of the accessibility features that EPUB 3 has There's also a lot of problems with fixed-layout EPUBs, which are ones where you can't change the size or the colour of the text or change the font There's a special font called OpenDyslexic And I think there's a few dyslexia fonts for people with dyslexia that you can toggle on in a lot of e-readers for reflowable books and it makes the text much more coherent for people who have dyslexia, but you can't do that with a fixed-layout ebook because the text is not being read in the same way by the e-reader

And then problems with searching and discoverability, both within the book and if you're navigating a library site and relying on metadata to get to a book that has certain features or to know, you know, "Are there things in this book that I'm going to have to access differently?" A lot of those things were missing in the books that the testers demoed for us at the summit So, Kate Edwards, who is in the room, the executive director of the ACP, and I spoke a bit sort of on behalf offrom the publisher perspective, and talked about

Kate talked about how a lot of the conversations we're having now about accessibility and creating accessible format ebooks is reminiscent of the conversations that were had when eBOUND first was created and the industry was adjusting to digital formats, and there was this sort of new technology that required new workflows, and people had to decide, "Are we going to do this in-house or does it make more, likecan we Are we going to invest in having someone on our team learn to make this technology and do this work, or does it make more sense for us to outsource it? Is it going to cost us a lot of money? What's the business case for doing this? What does the future of the market look like? Is this something we should be doing for all of our books? Should we just be focusing on frontlist? Should we be focusing on certain types of books?" And so there's a lot of the same questions that we asked ourselves a decade ago that are now coming up with this sort of shift to creating accessible formats as well So we talked about, for publishers, what's needed to help them make this transition and to start creating born-accessible text

So there is a good business case for doing it, and that's something that we need to share and sort of reinforce with publishers, that it is like a betterebook is better for everyone, not just people who have perceptual disabilities We have been looking into providing professional development

So NNELS has done a lot of work on that, and CELA, and CNIB, and eBOUND are also all sort of engaged in thinking about how we can help people learn about these new technologies, and sort of figure out what the most important things to be doing are to make their books accessible We need to work with our ebook vendors and wholesalers, so companies like Amazon, and Apple, and Kobo, and OverDrive, and then the libraries that are sort of the end purchasers through the wholesale market for us We need to be having conversations so that we're all making these changes in sync And as I mentioned, there are a number of collective projects and shared resources that already exist and that we're trying to sort of bring together in a cohesive way so that people can find all these supports easily We talked about the challenges that publishers face

And one thing that I find in my conversations with the publishers that eBOUND works with, is that it still feels kind of nebulous, like, there's all these things you could be doing and you should be doing and is thereyou know, how do you know that you've input all of the accessibility features that anybody would want to see? And it's tough because there arepeople have different needs and not every user is going to approach a book with the same needs, and so sort of getting a handle on all of the different things you could be doing, and where to put your efforts, it's still a big puzzle that publishers are working out And then looking at backlist So the idea of implementing a born-accessible workflow for frontlist titles, for everything that you're going to put out from now on, is one thing, and that has its own challenges, but that task, in some ways, pales in comparison to the idea of you've got hundreds, if not thousands, of backlist titles that don't have any of these features, and how are you going to address those books and do all that work of bringing them up to speed as well? So there's a lot of there are a lot of questions that we're still sort of working through as a group – And I guess that question about backlist probably happened with ebooks too, right? Like how do we take our print catalogue and digitize it? Yeah Rachel Comerford from Macmillan Learning talked about PDFs being still more frequently requested than EPUBs by educators And part of that is that EPUBs are more known and more common than EPUB and that teachers said that they know how to email a PDF already, even though you can email an EPUB, but they said that they were familiar with that

She also said that people unfamiliar with HTML often think that it's scary and/or difficult and they know how to use PDFs So, we haven't got that buy-in yet And this was sort of mirrored by Adam Wilton and Bob Minnery from the K-12 and post-secondary alternate format producers who said that there are braille-rendering issues with EPUB and a Word document is just safer They also need numbered pages in EPUB documents in order to be able to use them reliably, especially in education Math and science is more problematic

And the skill setimportantly, the skill set demands for using EPUBs are much greater So currently, people know how to edit Word documents and they can add styling and things like that, but in an EPUB, you need to know how to do a little bit of HTML and CSS if you want to fix any problems that are in that document

So that's a very different skill set for staff So they're not producing EPUB yet or much of it They're doing it for some fiction titles So Adam gave the example of a student in grade 11 who relies on screen-reading software with a refreshable braille display Her teacher has been providing her with materials in e-text format, so that's a Word document

There are braille-rendering issues which may exist with EPUB, so there is reluctance to switch with EPUB So it's just an example of someone who's like, "Okay EPUB may be great, but not ready to use it" One of our accessibility testers, Daniella, we asked her on the phone the other day, and Daniella, maybe you can answer it for us now What's your format of preference? – [Daniella] EPUB all the way

– EPUB all the way So as someone who's been using it and working with a team of testers and testing these books, even though many of them are inaccessible, that is still her format of preference now And it wasn't before, is that right? – That's right – Got a convert – She's an EPUB convert

– Yeah – So we were fortunate to be joined by Julie Fairweather and Michel Côté from the Canada Book Fund as well and they were able to speak a bit to the Department of Canadian Heritage isthe work that the Department of Canadian Heritage is doing in terms of sort of helping us figure out this puzzle and figuring out next steps for publishers

So there's a few things that Julie and Michel talked about So we all sort of recognize that there is still a lot of work to be done before we can fully move publishers to all creating born-accessible ebooks across the board and that there will be lots of different paths to get there One of the things that we were asked by the moderator or the facilitators at the summit to doand the facilitators were not from the publishing industry, and at one point, they said, "Can we just quickly jot out the workflow for publishing an ebook just so that anybody who is not a publisher knows?" And Rachel Comerford, who's in the room now, was sort of like, "Ah, I don't know if that's going to be" because, as the publishers in the room know, who were laughing, that there's not just one way that any books get made, and it differs from publishing house to publishing house and maybe even from department to department in bigger publishing houses, and so it's a big task to sort of figure out how these changes are going to be made across myriad different workflows Julie and Michel noted that there are issues with distribution, as well as discoverability and readability

They mentioned there was an initiative in Quebec, and I think Do I have this right, Julie? It was the Bibliotech and Archives Nationale to Quebec that offers all Quebecers with perceptual disabilities, the My French is terrible, I apologize But, the Service québécois du livre adapté, SQLA? – [Audience Member] Ess qu la – Pardon? – Ess qu and then la – Ess qu la

Okay So there has been sort of a more mobilized communal effort in Quebec and that's an example that we can be looking to in other parts of the country as well And Julie and Michel finished by saying how great it would be if everyone in Canada had access to Canadian-authored books that are being produced Here we've just got a quote from Marisa DeMeglio from the DAISY Consortium, who's done a lot of amazing work on the Ace Accessibility EPUB Checker and DAISY's other initiatives And so her quote was, "How great it would be to demystify accessibility and publishing and make it something concrete that we should do from the beginning

accessibility should be accessible" – So Sarah Hilderley is from Inclusive Publishing and we asked her to speak about some of the international efforts that were going on in accessible publishing So she talked about, in Australia, there is a group similar to what happened, a cross-stakeholder group is starting to meet regularly

In the UK, there's Jisc Is that how you say it? Jisc's ASPIRE project In the UK, also, the Publishers Association Accessibility Action Group And some of these are ones we've added In Italy, there's a publishers group called Fondazione LIA, that does some interesting stuff with accessibility

It's a publishers' organization They actually do the accessibility work themselves and they also distribute books So it's a different model from anyone else that we've seen Benetech in the US also does interesting work on accessibility and they also host Bookshare So it's like a

They produce and distribute and they have a certification program There's a lot of stuff going on, so that thing of, like, if everyone's doing it, maybe it's actually a movement And this isn't a comprehensive list at all

There was a The London Book Fair had Both NNELS and CELA were nominated for the International Excellence and Accessible Publishing Award from the Accessible Books Consortium at WIPO And there's tons we went to last week, and there's tons of good work going on all over the world But the interesting thing is that no one has the solution Like, there's not like one clear path that everyone can follow, it's like, "This is how to do accessible publishing

" So as we're figuring this out, and we'll get to this in a minute, like, this isn't necessarily the way but it'll get us somewhere, and it'll contribute to what's going on internationally – So one of the things that we had hoped to do at the summit was to sort of aggregate a list of resources for publishers And so we talked through a lot of the different places you can go on the internet to get to this information and what sort of the best places to start would be and then where to go if you need more in-depth information So the BISG Quick Start Guide to Accessible Publishing The new version is out

So that's a great place to start if you are sort of just beginning to think about accessibility If you want to get more involved, there are several W3C business either business, or working, or community groups, that look at things like the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, ARIA, and EPUB 3

The Accessible Books Consortium has the Charter for Accessible Publishing, and the sort of goal there is really to engage stakeholders at your organization and get everybody sort of committed and thinking about, "How are we going to do this?" and to really create sort of some movement around making change at your organization There's also the eproduction hashtag on Twitter which is a wonderful source of knowledge and sometimes complaining about things that – [Audience Member] Not me

– Yeah The gripes that people face in ebook production, but there are a lot of really smart people who are paying attention to that hashtag, so it's also a great place to throw questions out if you are working on something related to EPUB production or accessibility And then Laura Brady also has a series of training videos on lyndacom, which I confirmed with Maria yesterday, from the TPL It is still the case that you can access lynda

com through the Toronto Public Library, and if you don't live in Toronto, it's definitely something to check whether your local library gives you access to Lynda because there are tons of wonderful resources on that site relating to ebook production and also a million other topics – And who can joinRachel, who can join a W3C community group? – [Rachel] Anyone

– Oh, cool – So one of the things we talked about at the summit and a conversation that I have with publishers very often is why do publishers still produce EPUB 2 when EPUB 3 has been around for so long? And it's a complicated question, I think There is still a perception among some publishers that moving to EPUB 3 will be expensive, that it'll be a lot of work For creating new ebooks, it should not be a lot of work and in design, it's really just a toggle between EPUB 2 and EPUB 3 Again, the looming backlist is another issue, but at this point, I don't know of any

or no, I know if one vendor that still wants PDF instead of EPUB But for the most – [Audience Member] [Inaudible] – Yeah But the vast majority of vendors are taking EPUB 3 now, so there really should be no reason not to be producing new books in that at least According to BookNet's latest was it State of Digital Publishing survey? Which you can access on the BookNet Canada website if you have not seen before About 50% of publishers are producing EPUB 3 and there is a high awareness of this format, but lower implementation And one ebook vendor that we spoke to did say that they're still seeing about 60% of the content that's coming in is in EPUB 2 So it's still a factor

It's definitely not the case that everyone has moved over to EPUB 3 As I mentioned, for a while there were still vendors that wouldn't take EPUB 3 and so publishers would sort of end up catering to the lowest common denominator You're not going to make an EPUB 3 for a few vendors but then create an EPUB 2 to send to the vendors that don't take EPUB 3 You're just going to create an EPUB 2 because everybody will take it and it will make your life easier We also heard about one company that was actively discouraging EPUB 3 because it doesn't work with their proprietary tooling

So there are still barriers to the adoption of EPUB 3 and the much-broadened suite of accessibility features that are included in the EPUB 3 spec – The Department of Canadian Heritage did a survey and we're going to give you two slides that just describe a little bit of what is out there So, one of the questions was, "How do you create accessible formats of your titles?" and granted, there were only 40 responses But there are a lot who create titles in-house and there are a lot who outsource their books So we know that both of these groups of publishers are important to figure out how to support them

And the other question another one we're including here is I can't read that at all "What are the biggest barriers to your publishing business and making titles more accessible?" So we start with accessibility is a low priority, is low at 4%, up to digital rights management concerns at 7%, don't know enough about the subject or technologies at 27% And then we get into the stuff Access to the technologies, projected revenue is low

So there's the need to make the business case Staff availability is a concern at 64% and the sense that the costs are high at 68% So one of the other questions they asked is "What do you need?" One of them wassome of the answers were training, but a lot of the answers were related to funding to make this happen So now that we've got gas in the tank with this funding, we know what some of those concerns are – So one of the things we sort of came away from the summit talking about and one of the goals that many organizations aremany of the people are in this room who work those organizations are all sort of still thinking about and working towards is to move publishers towards born-accessible publishing, so that means implementing the accessibility features at the beginning of the process of making an EPUB, rather than waiting until the EPUB is made and then taking it back apart and adding all that stuff in It's a lot easier to do it born-accessible than it is to try and retroactively take your book apart and add back in all of the things that you'd want to see in an alternate format text or for people with perceptual disabilities And one of the I attended another workshop that NNELS hosted across the country, right? It was sort of a cross-country tour of accessible EPUB creation with Lisa Snider from Access Changes Everything And she pointed out that accessibility features are not just good for people who have perceptual disabilities They also improve the discoverability and the search engine optimization of your books across the board So things like detailed metadata, video transcripts and captions, and alt texts can also improve search engine and distribution engines' abilities to put your books in front of the right people and to really narrow down whatmatch people who are looking for content with your books – All right So we came together to come up with a set of guidelines and the idea of workflows and the topics for different groups to do We realized that all of those things already sort of exist

A lot of them are very technical What we need is that translation from that information to publishers and the help for them to understand how to do these things, the resources, the tools So we came up with this idea, we originally had this idea for one working group with 15 people We had a summit with 50 people and we ended up with 8 working groups So, this is a structure that will probably change

A lot of people have signed up for these groups, but they're also open If you're interested in this, and I see about half of the people in the room were at the summit, so, you don't need to re-sign up But if you're interested in this, please come and talk to me if you want to be involved in any of this work because we welcome all hands and it's going to be a lot of work, and the more voices that are involved in this, the better it will be for accessible publishing in Canada So the groups that came up were a website metaproject So this is the idea that there's a website that has the latest resources that includes beginner information, links to more expertise

There's also information there for libraries on procurement, how they can procure accessible tools and make that a requirement for purchasing So it's a big project because it sort of embraces everything There's also this idea of certification So can we create a sort of gold/silver/bronze level system where we know what's included in an EPUB file? So if it's a bronze, we know that at least it has structure and headings, for example And it's also a "metaproject" because it

again, it involves sort of a lot of the other pieces Grow the network is the idea of building awareness of accessible publishing across Canada and who's also doing good work internationally and nationally that we can support and work with, collaborate Hiring people with print disabilities in publishing

So this is a really important piece because these are folks who can help publishers make their workflow more accessible throughout Before a book is published, they can give feedback, not just on the ebook, they can also help publishers with other like across the work that they do

Accessible publishing government policies What are the carrots that we need? How do we incentivize accessible publishing in Canada? So now we know as of this morning, yesterday, that we have something that we can usenot we, but there is an incentive there

Public training and social inclusion How do we work and support the people who don't yet use EPUB, don't have access to EPUB, don't have access to the tools and devices? What are the public what's the public training and how can we encourage people to use EPUB where it exists? Also the question of licensing and rights

How do we ensure that content creators are fairly compensated for their work? And what might be some options, alternatives, to digital rights management that allows for accessibility? Finally, search and discoverability This is about, "Okay, we've done all this great work and this is part of the federal funding It includes production, but it also includes the distribution side How do we make these accessible books findable by the people who need those features?" This is from Jeanette Winterson This is the why-we're-here thing

"I do not believe that all art and beauty are ever separate, nor do I believe that either art or beauty are optional in a sane society That puts me on the side of what Harold Bloom calls 'the ecstasy of the privileged moment' Art, all art, as insight, as rapture, as transformation, as joy Unlike Harold Bloom, I really believe that human beings can be taught to love what they do not love already, and that the privileged moment exists for all of us, if we let it Letting art is the paradox of active surrender

I have to work for art if I want art to work for me" So I propose that all of us were here because of art and it's our duty to the authors as well as to the people who are reading their books to make those books as accessible as possible Thanks for listening

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